Tuesday, December 20, 2016

Bila tak de air

Hari ni hari kedua tak de air. Kalau ikut laporan media, 3.8 juta orang pengguna di Lembah Klang keputusan air. Time cam ni la baru rasa balik betapa pentingnya dan nikmatnya air. Keputusan air ni mengingatkan saya kepada ayat terakhir surah al-Mulk. 

""Katakanlah lagi: "Bagaimana fikiran kamu, sekiranya air kamu hilang lenyap (di telan bumi), maka siapakah (selain Allah) yang dapat mendatangkan kepada kamu air yang sentiasa terpancar mengalir?" (Surah alMulk: 30)

Siapakah yang lebih berkuasa daripada Pemerintah dunia dan akhirat? Syukurilah nikmat air, dan tunduklah kepada Dia yang menguasai air.

Pleasurable report

Many of the assignments or reports submitted by my students contribute to the increasing grayness of my hair. However, there are a few that brings joy and pleasure to the otherwise challenging task of marking the reports. Here is one excellent work produced by a student. Idlan Zahari had kindly agreed for me to share his work. I've done minor changes to the first paragraph of his work. Some formatting changes had also been applied by blogger when I copy-pasted his proposal here. 

The Relationship between Forgiveness and Religiously Motivated Violence

Muhammad Idlan Afiq Bin Mohamad Zahari
PSYC 4120 Psychology of Religion, Semester 1, 2016/2017

Course Instructor: Dr. Harris Shah Abdul Hamid
Department of Psychology
International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)

The relationship between forgiveness and religiously motivated violence

Religiously motivated violence have been on the rise lately or at least more apparent on today’s media. According to Finke and Harris (2012, p. 17), religiously motivated violence can be define as ‘any act of violence to persons or property motivated by the religious belief or profession of the perpetrator or victim’. Since its nature of death and violence, there should be a research interest looking at its causes and effects especially in the realm of human behaviour and mental processes. ‘The Psychology of Contemporary Religious Violence’ by Jones (2013) has covered many areas on this type of violence, from factors to possible implications for practice; however, it has highlighted one interesting view on forgiveness and religious motivated violence. This paper would examine further the relationship between the two. Therefore, the present paper will discuss a possible research by focusing on (a) Research Problem Statement, (b) Justification of Proposed Research, (c) Research Objective, (d) Hypothesis/ Expected Findings. 

Research Problem Statement
Juergensmeyer (2003) and Miller (2007) highlighted in their studies that there have been an increase in violence and terrorism in the past decade, suggesting more positive attitude towards violence. While there have been attempt for solutions for religious motivated violence, the solutions proposed so far have required a grand scale intervention, such as decrease in societal restrictions on religion and religious social movement (Finke & Harris, 2012) which highlighted societal restrictions on religion have positive direct effect on violence. These interventions require harsh, national to global level policy making as by O’Brien (1985). Yet, Miller (2007) highlighted that there are no best policy in countering such acts of violence. Also, macro level intervention take too long to be establish and may not be able to be implemented on time and cost too many resources. While it is has been proven that religiously motivated violence is multidimensional issue with various factors (Jones, 2013), there could be a micro level intervention that could be develop to help curb such violence. Therefore, there is an urgent need to not only understand the reasons behind these horrible acts but also look at how to decrease attitude towards violence, in hopes to eradicate religious motivated violence from a micro level. If we continue to ignore these acts of violence, especially in curbing positive attitude towards violence, many more unnecessary deaths and loss could happen, and violence may become a new norm.

If we were to look at these violence acts as an extreme form of intergroup conflict, forgiveness could be used to help reconcile such differences (Jones, 2013). Forgiveness according to Staub, Pearlman, Gubin and Hagengimana (2005, p.301) is ‘letting go of anger and the desire for revenge’ and their study further showed that through forgiveness, violence is able to be prevented and healing can better occur. Forgiveness can also play a mediating role in improving ethnopolitical conflict (Myers, Hewstone & Cairns, 2009), which is root cause to many terrorism acts. Since religiously motivated violence behave similarly to ethnopolitical violence, and both are attacking people who may have offend them due to threat to their sacred (Jones, 2013), forgiveness, which require overcoming resentment to the offender may reduce act of violence (Rye, Loiacono, Folck, Olszewski, Heim, & Madia, 2001). While there have been a lot of studies on forgiveness (Jones, 2013; McCullough, Pargament & Thoresen, 2000), little or no research found for forgiveness and religious motivated violence, showed that more research needs to be done to truly understand religious motivated violence. 

Research Justification
According to Finke and Harris (2012, p. 17), religious-motivated violence has been coded as ‘widespread’ in 27 percent of all countries. In most countries, there are forms of religious violence, ranging from physical assault, torture or death (Finke & Harris, 2012). Therefore, the first justification is for such look for relationship between forgiveness and attitude towards violence, is that religious-motivated violence has become almost common. 

Secondly, there is still lack of understanding on the topic of religious motivated violence. While the laymen may assume religious motivated violence stemmed from extremism in religion, Waller highlighted four possible factors such as genetic predispositions, cultural belief system, culture of cruelty and social death (as cited in Jones, 2013). Even so, there are many other theories in explaining factors of this type of violence as described by Jones (2013), such as Kohut’s violence due to threat to self or narcissistic rage and lack of empathy, showing the complexity of this type of violence. The complexity of religious motivated violence, calls for a more research on this area, especially to avoid mismanagement in decreasing violence. As stated also, little or no research found for forgiveness and religious motivated violence which highlight a need to look at this relationship even more.

As mentioned above, there are more interventions that focused on macro level intervention for religious violence instead of micro level. There is a need for micro level intervention as it allows positive impact on behaviours (Luthans, Avey, Avolio, Norman, & Combs, 2006). Luthans and colleagues (2006) also mentioned how micro-level interventions are more directly focused in the persons one’s actual self and possible self, therefore, suggesting that micro level or personal based intervention could help the individuals of a terrorist group. Researching on this level of intervention or relationship also allows more personal preventive measure that was somehow failed to be capture by the current strategy against terrorism (O’Brien, 1985).

Research Objective
Therefore, to address the gaps, this study aims to explore the relationship between forgiveness and religious motivated violence. This possible relationship has been highlighted by Jones (2013) as promising area of research and if found exist, may play a role in a possible micro-level intervention to decrease religious motivated violence. Conceptually, forgiveness similarly defined as previously mentioned is overcoming resentment to the offender. Operationally, it would be resulting scores of participants on the Enright Forgiveness Inventory (Subkoviak, Enright,Wu, Gassin, Freedman, Olson & Sarinopoulos, 1995).  Religiously motivated violence in this possible research would look at the favourableness of individuals’ evaluations of violence in general due to religious motivation. The reason to look at religious motivated violence from attitude towards violence perspective is that there is an assumption that higher or positive attitude towards violence may increase violence (Carnagey, & Anderson, 2007; Velicer, Huckel, & Hansen, 1989). Operationally, it would be the resulting scores of participants on an adapted version Revised Attitudes towards Violence Scale (Anderson, Benjamin, Wood & Bonacci, 2006).

While there is little to no research have been found on forgiveness and religiously motivated violence, from Jones’s writings (2013) and research of forgiveness on reconciling conflicts (Myers, Hewstone & Cairns, 2009), the hypothesis of this study is there is significant negative relationship between forgiveness and religious motivated violence. The higher the likelihood to forgive, the lower the attitude towards religiously motivated violence.

References [somehow blogger removed the italics and indentation formatting in the references below. I don't bother adding the italics]

Anderson, C. A., Benjamin, A. J., Wood, P. K., & Bonacci, A. M. (2006). Development and testing of the Velicer attitudes toward violence scale: Evidence for a four‐factor model. Aggressive Behavior, 32(2), 122-136.
Carnagey, N. L., & Anderson, C. A. (2007). Changes in attitudes towards war and violence after September 11, 2001. Aggressive Behavior, 33(2), 118-129.
Finke, R., & Harris, J. (2012). Wars and rumors of wars: Explaining religiously motivated violence. Religion, Politics, Society and The State, 53-71.
Jones, J. W. (2013). The psychology of contemporary religious violence: A multidimensional approach. APA Handbook of Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality (Vol 2): An Applied Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 2, 355–370. doi:10.1037/14046-018
Juergensmeyer, M. (2003). The religious roots of contemporary terrorism. The New Global Terrorism: Characteristics, Causes, Controls, 185-193.
Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., Norman, S. M., & Combs, G. M. (2006). Psychological capital development: toward a micro‐intervention. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(3), 387-393.
Miller, G. D. (2007). Confronting terrorisms: Group motivation and successful state policies. Terrorism and Political Violence, 19(3), 331-350.
Myers, E., Hewstone, M., & Cairns, E. (2009). Impact of conflict on mental health in Northern Ireland: The mediating role of intergroup forgiveness and collective guilt. Political Psychology, 30(2), 269-290.
O’Brien, W. (1985). Counterterrorism: Lessons from Israel. Strategic Review, 13(4), 32-44.
McCullough, M. E., Pargament, K. I., & Thoresen, C. E. (2000). The frontier of forgiveness. Forgiveness: Theory, Research and Practice, 299-319.
Rye, M. S., Loiacono, D. M., Folck, C. D., Olszewski, B. T., Heim, T. A., & Madia, B. P. (2001). Evaluation of the psychometric properties of two forgiveness scales. Current Psychology, 20(3), 260-277.
Staub, E., Pearlman, L. A., Gubin, A., & Hagengimana, A. (2005). Healing, reconciliation, forgiving and the prevention of violence after genocide or mass killing: An intervention and its experimental evaluation in Rwanda. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(3), 297.
Subkoviak, M. J., Enright, R. D., Wu, C., Gassin, E. A., Freedman, S., Olson, L. M., & Sarinopoulos, I. (1995). Measuring interpersonal forgiveness in late adolescence and middle adulthood. Journal of Adolescence, 18, 641–655
Velicer, W. F., Huckel, L. H., & Hansen, C. E. (1989). A measurement model for measuring attitudes toward violence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15(3), 349-364.

Thursday, December 08, 2016

Positive and Negative Religious Experience

"Sesungguhnya Kami mengetahui bahawa apa yang mereka katakan itu akan menyebabkan engkau (wahai Muhammad) berdukacita; (maka janganlah engkau berdukacita) kerana sebenarnya mereka bukan mendustakanmu, tetapi orang-orang yang zalim itu mengingkari ayat-ayat keterangan Allah (disebabkan kedegilan mereka semata-mata)." (6:33)
Penglibatan dalam aktiviti keagamaan (e.g. berdakwah) boleh mendatangkan ransangan yg negatif. Mengikut Krause (2013), kesan ini boleh dikelaskan sebagai "the dark side of religion". Bukan maksudnya agama itu negatif; tapi pengamal agama itu mungkin terdedah kepada kecederaan fizikal dan psikologikal disebabkan pengamalan agama itu.
Keindahan yg saya nampak dalam ayat di atas, selain mengakui kesan negatif yg mungkin timbul, Allah swt juga mengajar positive reframing supaya "dark side" itu tidak menghasilkan natijah buruk kepada kesihatan.

Thor puns

Q: What venue would Odin's son prefer to have his concert?
A: An audiThorium
Q: Why did the prince of Asgard read a medicine textbook?
A; Because he wants to be a docThor.
Q; Why did the hammer-wielding superhero feel disgusted and angry when eating at a Malay restaurant?
A: Because he saw people having Thorpedo soup.
Q: What is the strongest equipment that math students have?
A; CalculaThor
Q; Why wasn't Thor's younger brother involved in any of the questions above?
A: Because he likes to keep it low-key.

PAU berasap

Ada tak ahli atau pemimpin UMNO yg mampu perjuangkan hak rakyat utk dilindungi daripada asap rokok di tempat awam (cth: kedai makan)?
Undang2 dah ada. Perlu dipinda ke?
Saya rasa rokok ni satu faktor penyatuan dalam kalangan org berbaju merah, kuning, biru, oren dll. Bab politik memang gaduh kaw kaw. Bab kongsi rokok dan asap rokok, jadi sekutu baik. Boleh derma rokok. Pinjamkan lighter. Sedut sama2.
Rokok Asas Penyatuan.

باءيق باءيق منيتيق بدق
بدق كريڠ دلاري كومبڠ
برڤد ڤد منابور ددق
ددق هابيس ايم تربڠ

Tersurat vs tersirat

Budak budak yg belum bersekolah sebenarnya dah pandai guna ayat tersirat. Bila dinyatakan bahawa "orang dewasa saja boleh makan chewing gum", ada budak2 yg boleh membuat respon
"Ooo.. kanak2 tak boleh makan ya?"
Yg jadi masalah ialah bila mereka diajar ada satu saja ayat tersirat yg diterima sebagai betul. Mungkin aktiviti pengajaran dan penilaian di sekolah boleh menggalakkan penerokaan apa yg tersirat dalam pemikiran mereka.

Berdasarkan pemerhatian tidak saintifik, kanak2 memang ada kemampuan mentafsir yg tersirat daripada yg tersurat. Soalan2 yg boleh ditanya berkenaan isu ini ialah
1. Apa matlamat pembelajaran tersebut?
2. Sesuaikan matlamat berkenaan disangkut kepada mu
rid darjah 1?
3. Adakah sebenarnya yabg diajar: membezakan tersurat dan tersirat? Kaedah 'penyiratan'? Menghafal contoh2 ayat tersirat? Kemahiran menggunakan teks sebagai data utk menyirat? Kemahiran menggunakan maklumat daripada pengalaman hidup utk menyirat?

Pantun 4 Kaki

Lembu jinak parasnya sihat
rajin meragut merata padang
terlalu banyak masa berehat
badan lembut orang tak pandang
Kuda meringkik berlatar teja
nampak perkasa bukan melidi
peluh menitik ibarat baja
bercambah jasa berbunga budi
Biri-biri bermain seludang
jelas benar nakal comelnya
jaga teliti si anak medang
bila besar luas teduhnya
Sapi di hutan kencang berlari
kuat tenaga bukannya baran
hidup bukan makan sendiri
pedulilah juga kenyang jiran

Monday, November 14, 2016

Writing References with Google Scholar

Are you required to use APA style for your assignments or report? Do you want to gain easy marks by formatting your references correctly (i.e. NOT lose marks by turning in poorly formatted references?). Google Scholar can help you to do it with minimal fuss. Follow the easy steps below.

1. Find the paper through scholar.google.com (e.g. statistics anxiety Abd Hamid)

2. Locate the paper that you want to cite. Click 'cite'. Where is it? It is located in the last line of the

3. You will see the pop up window with reference written in five styles. Choose the reference style that you want, copy and then paste onto your Word document.

Easy peasy!
I learned about this from Hamed Haque via Muhamad Karimi Sulaiman. Thank you guys.

Now that you have the references in Word, you are not done yet. there are a few more steps to make it appear like an APA-styled references list.

The problem with this list is that it is not arranged alphabetically. You can sort them easily by first selecting all references, and then clicking on the sort button (the one with blue A and red Z and a downward facing arrow).

Since we want an ascending order, we don't change anything in the pop-up window. Just click OK. 

Voila!!! Now the references are arranged alphabetically. And just one more step to do. Please change the indentation so that the second and subsequent lines in a reference is indented once to the right. See the highlighted part of the ruler in the picture below. 

When you're done, you just have to check for any error that Scholar might have 'ínherited' from the original source. Some common errors are:

1) The journal's name is not spelled in full e.g "J of Exp Psyc"  should be written as Journal of Experimental Psychology.

2) Capitalisation. Journal's name should use capital letters as in the example above. 

3). The journal name is in roman instead of italics. When you pasted the text, the italic formatting may disappear depending on your paste mode. 

4) General spelling error. Double check that the spelling of all parts of the references are correct. If the original source is in fact erroneous, then you'd be okay. You don't have to correct it. 

Happy referencing. 

Thursday, June 02, 2016

Imbasan Pertama

Imbasan Pertama

Bila mendengar detak detik
yang digemakan dari degupan jantungmu
sebuah keyakinan yang tertangguh
menjelma serta merta

Kemanisan-kemanisan yang dijangka
lewat kelewatan yang termaklum
menjadi hari-hari yang tersidai
di ampaian nyata
lalu timbul curiga dan waspada
pada sentuhan matahari, bimbang tersilau
pada hembusan angin, risau berdebu

Maaf, aku belum berani
menyusun harapan yang mengasak
di empangan dada
melaungkan kepada dunia
hasrat menyentuh jejari halusmu
di sisi bondamu

kupohon kesempurnaan ciptaan
dari insan selemahku
akan diwujudkan dirimu

Harris Shah Abd Hamid

Ampang Point

Catatan 7 bulan yang lalu, setelah doktor mengesahkan kehadiran seorang lagi penyeri dalam keluarga. Sarah Zakirah anugerah Allah kepada kami sekeluarga. Moga Allah berikan kami kekuatan dan kesabaran untuk membesarkan Sarah sebagai insan solehah. 

Wednesday, June 01, 2016

Sasterawan Negara Dr Zurinah Hassan

Teruslah Bermain Seruling

Tiupan serulingmu
merdu dalam bersahaja
menggemakan pesanan saksama dari gunung Ledang
juga memudahkan hadam sisi tempang
perjalanan Hang Li Po, Tun Teja, dan Tuah
yang jarang diulas sejarah

Mainan serulingmu
bukan hanyut dalam perasaan
malah berkongsi kekuatan
upaya berfikir dan melihat
melalui bingkai-bingkai tingkap
yang jarang ditatap

Alunan seruling itu tetap merdu dan ampuh
hasil seniman yang hidup dalam dirinya
dan tidak meninggalkan seni
untuk membanting jasadnya merawat dunia

Teruslah bermain seruling
untuk kami para seluang
yang menghadap ke pelabuhan

Harris Shah Abd Hamid

14 April 2016

Catatan ini dihasilkan sebelum menghadiri majlis pengaugerahan Sasterawan Negara Ketiga Belas di Hotel Mariot Putrajaya. 

Monday, March 28, 2016

scoring a test in SPSS

Lets say you have a test and have keyed in the respondents' answer. If the questions are MCQ type of questions, perhaps you would have keyed in the numbers 1, 2, 3 or 4 to represent the answers A, B, C, and D. Now you want to find out the respondents' score. Each question would have only one correct answer. You cannot simply compute the total of the numbers because not all of the numbers for your respondents may  necessarily be the correct answer, right?

In this example, there are 20 items with labels RAT1 up to RAT20. The possible answers are coded into 1 (correct answer), 0 (wrong answer) and 99 (blank answer). If we want to compute the total correct answer for each participant, we use the Transform menu and choose Count Values within Cases as indicated in the diagram below.

In the pop-up window, we specify the target variable and target label. Basically, these are for the new variable that we want to create. So, for this example, i used the name 'correct' and 'correct answers' for the variable and label.  I also have to specify what is (are) the numeric variables to be included in the computation. Since I have 20 RAT items, I inserted all twenty of them in the Numeric Variables box. When that is done, you click on Define Values.

In the following window, you tell SPSS what value do you want to count. In this case, I want to know how many correct answers are there; so, the logical value to declare is '1'. Make sure you click the 'Add' button before continuing.

When you click 'OK' in the previous window, you'll get the new variable listed in your file.  And remember to say Alhamdulillah. 

Thursday, February 18, 2016

I was a migrant too

Migrants made a decision to move to another country to meet their financial/economic needs.
They also have social needs: being in close contact with friends, family and relatives. They did not leave their social needs behind in a box. Have we ever tried to empathise with the homesickness that migrants feel? People had to make a difficult decision to uproot themselves and leave their family behind. It is definitely NOT 'for fun'. The trip from the home country does not feel touristy at all. I remember the heartache and the tears that rolled down my cheeks in 2007 when I made my journey to England. As the aircraft took off, my spirit did the opposite of soaring. Not fun at all.
When there are a lot of basic psychological needs not met, should we be surprised that there are 'problems'?
Their work environment is largely dictated by their employer. Employers should take the responsibility to create an environment to improve psychological well-being.
Their social environment is another important element for their well-being. Being accepted and treated fairly in social context is a huge boost for psychological health. Who's going to do the 'accepting' job? Guess who do they find in their social environment. Yes, us.
Do we do a good job to assimilate the migrants? Or do we try our best to ignore or actively harass them?
On what basis should we treat the migrants with contempt and disgust? Based on their passport? Body odour? Their language? The government spokeperson who campaigned for their arrival?
Is your religion not strong enough to be a basis for reaching out to your brothers and sisters?