Friday, March 10, 2017

Research problem statements

Example 1
It remains unclear whether street-dancers will have more positive or more negative body image in comparison with non-dancers…. In order to test these contrasting hypotheses, the present study compared actual-ideal weight discrepancy, body appreciation, and media influences between street-dancers and an age-matched sample of non-dancers.

Swami, V., & Tovée, M. J. (2009). A comparison of actual-ideal weight discrepancy, body appreciation, and media influence between street-dancers and non-dancers. Body Image, 6(4), 304-307.

Example 2 
Nevertheless, the BAS’s psychometric properties can be improved….. The original BAS has two additional limitations…. Therefore, in light of recent literature on positive body image and the aforementioned limitations of the original BAS, we revised and updated this scale,

Tylka, T. L., & Wood-Barcalow, N. L. (2015). The Body Appreciation Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation. Body Image, 12, 53-67.

Example 3 
Less studied is the way in which (if at all) perfectionism relates to the risk factors for eating disorders. ….. Thus further research is required in order to better understand the complexities of which type of perfectionism relates to body dissatisfaction.


Wade, T. D., & Tiggemann, M. (2013). The role of perfectionism in body dissatisfaction. Journal of eating disorders, 1(1), 2.

============

In example 1, the authors highlighted contradictory predictions based on existing work. That's why they said 'it is unclear'; different theories led to different hypotheses. Therefore, they conducted the study to see which hypothesis would be supported.

In example 2, the problem is the limitations of an existing scale (BAS). based on previous studies, 3 limitations were found. Therefore, to continue using the scale, modifications were suggested and that's why the authors conducted the study.
 
Notice how the 'lack of study' is used in example 3. The lack of study regarding perfectionism is considered a problem. However, justification were given as to why this problem SHOULD be solved. In fact, several studies were quoted to provide the evidence that different types of perfectionism are related to body dissatisfaction.

Blogger Widgets

Friday, February 10, 2017

Research Problems and Questions

Nak tulis cadangan penyelidikan bukan boleh main-main. Nak cari permasalahan kajian (research problem) pun mungkin ambil masa beberapa semester (ni kisah sebelum GOT menjadi trend). Bukan senang nak cari masalah.
Kadang-kadang masalah tu ada dalam kepala, tapi punyalah payah nak ditulis. Beza antara permasalahan kajian dan soalan kajian (research questions) pun boleh memeningkan. Itulah antara cabaran kesarjanaan.
Cuba lihat contoh di bawah ni. Jelas atau tidak permasalahannya?
(1)
Problem: While several management practices have been cited as important components of safety programs, it is not known how much each of the practices lowers injury rates.
Question: how much does each management practices incrementally contribute to injury reduction?
(2)
Problem: With limited resources to help reduce occupational injuries, companies struggle with how to best focus these resources to achieve the greatest reduction in injuries for the optimal cost. Safety culture has been identified as a critical factor that sets the tone for importance of safety within an organization.
Question: Which dimensions of safety culture are strongly related to reduction in occupational injuries.

What would be the background issues for those problems? They could be:
1) high injury rates in construction industry
2) high financial cost associated with occupational injuries
3) new legislation regarding occupational injuries
4) spiraling cost of insurance claims and compensation
5) influx of foreign labour into the job market doing 3D jobs
I hope you can see how these issues covers practical, economical, legal, and even political perspectives. This is quite common if you're addressing a real-world problem. Chapter one of the thesis should consider these broad issues. Why is it important? (1) because the issues can help to contextualise the research problems. in other words, you can establish the significance of your research. i.e bukanlah nak buat research yg bersifat syok sendiri; research yang dok sangkut kat menara gading tanpa berpijak ke bumi. (2) In fact, these real world problems can then be translated into your research questions. Or, it can be used to refine a research problem that you've already identify. If you start the proposal with the RP, the background issues can help you to convince yourself that your RP is important. 

================
Problems and Questions adapted from:
O'Toole, M. (2002). The relationship between employees' perceptions of safety and organizational culture. Journal of Safety Research, 33(2), 231-243.
Vredenburgh, A. G. (2002). Organizational safety: which management practices are most effective in reducing employee injury rates?. Journal of Safety Research, 33(2), 259-276.

Monday, January 23, 2017

Malaysia Ergonomics Bibliography

Journals

Human Factors & Ergonomics Journal (HFEMJ)
The Journal of Occupational Safety and Health (JOSH)


Journal Articles



















Conference Proceedings 


Tuesday, December 20, 2016

Bila tak de air

Hari ni hari kedua tak de air. Kalau ikut laporan media, 3.8 juta orang pengguna di Lembah Klang keputusan air. Time cam ni la baru rasa balik betapa pentingnya dan nikmatnya air. Keputusan air ni mengingatkan saya kepada ayat terakhir surah al-Mulk. 

""Katakanlah lagi: "Bagaimana fikiran kamu, sekiranya air kamu hilang lenyap (di telan bumi), maka siapakah (selain Allah) yang dapat mendatangkan kepada kamu air yang sentiasa terpancar mengalir?" (Surah alMulk: 30)

Siapakah yang lebih berkuasa daripada Pemerintah dunia dan akhirat? Syukurilah nikmat air, dan tunduklah kepada Dia yang menguasai air.

Pleasurable report

Many of the assignments or reports submitted by my students contribute to the increasing grayness of my hair. However, there are a few that brings joy and pleasure to the otherwise challenging task of marking the reports. Here is one excellent work produced by a student. Idlan Zahari had kindly agreed for me to share his work. I've done minor changes to the first paragraph of his work. Some formatting changes had also been applied by blogger when I copy-pasted his proposal here. 


The Relationship between Forgiveness and Religiously Motivated Violence

Muhammad Idlan Afiq Bin Mohamad Zahari
PSYC 4120 Psychology of Religion, Semester 1, 2016/2017


Course Instructor: Dr. Harris Shah Abdul Hamid
Department of Psychology
International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)


The relationship between forgiveness and religiously motivated violence

Religiously motivated violence have been on the rise lately or at least more apparent on today’s media. According to Finke and Harris (2012, p. 17), religiously motivated violence can be define as ‘any act of violence to persons or property motivated by the religious belief or profession of the perpetrator or victim’. Since its nature of death and violence, there should be a research interest looking at its causes and effects especially in the realm of human behaviour and mental processes. ‘The Psychology of Contemporary Religious Violence’ by Jones (2013) has covered many areas on this type of violence, from factors to possible implications for practice; however, it has highlighted one interesting view on forgiveness and religious motivated violence. This paper would examine further the relationship between the two. Therefore, the present paper will discuss a possible research by focusing on (a) Research Problem Statement, (b) Justification of Proposed Research, (c) Research Objective, (d) Hypothesis/ Expected Findings. 

Research Problem Statement
Juergensmeyer (2003) and Miller (2007) highlighted in their studies that there have been an increase in violence and terrorism in the past decade, suggesting more positive attitude towards violence. While there have been attempt for solutions for religious motivated violence, the solutions proposed so far have required a grand scale intervention, such as decrease in societal restrictions on religion and religious social movement (Finke & Harris, 2012) which highlighted societal restrictions on religion have positive direct effect on violence. These interventions require harsh, national to global level policy making as by O’Brien (1985). Yet, Miller (2007) highlighted that there are no best policy in countering such acts of violence. Also, macro level intervention take too long to be establish and may not be able to be implemented on time and cost too many resources. While it is has been proven that religiously motivated violence is multidimensional issue with various factors (Jones, 2013), there could be a micro level intervention that could be develop to help curb such violence. Therefore, there is an urgent need to not only understand the reasons behind these horrible acts but also look at how to decrease attitude towards violence, in hopes to eradicate religious motivated violence from a micro level. If we continue to ignore these acts of violence, especially in curbing positive attitude towards violence, many more unnecessary deaths and loss could happen, and violence may become a new norm.

If we were to look at these violence acts as an extreme form of intergroup conflict, forgiveness could be used to help reconcile such differences (Jones, 2013). Forgiveness according to Staub, Pearlman, Gubin and Hagengimana (2005, p.301) is ‘letting go of anger and the desire for revenge’ and their study further showed that through forgiveness, violence is able to be prevented and healing can better occur. Forgiveness can also play a mediating role in improving ethnopolitical conflict (Myers, Hewstone & Cairns, 2009), which is root cause to many terrorism acts. Since religiously motivated violence behave similarly to ethnopolitical violence, and both are attacking people who may have offend them due to threat to their sacred (Jones, 2013), forgiveness, which require overcoming resentment to the offender may reduce act of violence (Rye, Loiacono, Folck, Olszewski, Heim, & Madia, 2001). While there have been a lot of studies on forgiveness (Jones, 2013; McCullough, Pargament & Thoresen, 2000), little or no research found for forgiveness and religious motivated violence, showed that more research needs to be done to truly understand religious motivated violence. 

Research Justification
According to Finke and Harris (2012, p. 17), religious-motivated violence has been coded as ‘widespread’ in 27 percent of all countries. In most countries, there are forms of religious violence, ranging from physical assault, torture or death (Finke & Harris, 2012). Therefore, the first justification is for such look for relationship between forgiveness and attitude towards violence, is that religious-motivated violence has become almost common. 

Secondly, there is still lack of understanding on the topic of religious motivated violence. While the laymen may assume religious motivated violence stemmed from extremism in religion, Waller highlighted four possible factors such as genetic predispositions, cultural belief system, culture of cruelty and social death (as cited in Jones, 2013). Even so, there are many other theories in explaining factors of this type of violence as described by Jones (2013), such as Kohut’s violence due to threat to self or narcissistic rage and lack of empathy, showing the complexity of this type of violence. The complexity of religious motivated violence, calls for a more research on this area, especially to avoid mismanagement in decreasing violence. As stated also, little or no research found for forgiveness and religious motivated violence which highlight a need to look at this relationship even more.

As mentioned above, there are more interventions that focused on macro level intervention for religious violence instead of micro level. There is a need for micro level intervention as it allows positive impact on behaviours (Luthans, Avey, Avolio, Norman, & Combs, 2006). Luthans and colleagues (2006) also mentioned how micro-level interventions are more directly focused in the persons one’s actual self and possible self, therefore, suggesting that micro level or personal based intervention could help the individuals of a terrorist group. Researching on this level of intervention or relationship also allows more personal preventive measure that was somehow failed to be capture by the current strategy against terrorism (O’Brien, 1985).

Research Objective
Therefore, to address the gaps, this study aims to explore the relationship between forgiveness and religious motivated violence. This possible relationship has been highlighted by Jones (2013) as promising area of research and if found exist, may play a role in a possible micro-level intervention to decrease religious motivated violence. Conceptually, forgiveness similarly defined as previously mentioned is overcoming resentment to the offender. Operationally, it would be resulting scores of participants on the Enright Forgiveness Inventory (Subkoviak, Enright,Wu, Gassin, Freedman, Olson & Sarinopoulos, 1995).  Religiously motivated violence in this possible research would look at the favourableness of individuals’ evaluations of violence in general due to religious motivation. The reason to look at religious motivated violence from attitude towards violence perspective is that there is an assumption that higher or positive attitude towards violence may increase violence (Carnagey, & Anderson, 2007; Velicer, Huckel, & Hansen, 1989). Operationally, it would be the resulting scores of participants on an adapted version Revised Attitudes towards Violence Scale (Anderson, Benjamin, Wood & Bonacci, 2006).

Hypothesis
While there is little to no research have been found on forgiveness and religiously motivated violence, from Jones’s writings (2013) and research of forgiveness on reconciling conflicts (Myers, Hewstone & Cairns, 2009), the hypothesis of this study is there is significant negative relationship between forgiveness and religious motivated violence. The higher the likelihood to forgive, the lower the attitude towards religiously motivated violence.

References [somehow blogger removed the italics and indentation formatting in the references below. I don't bother adding the italics]

Anderson, C. A., Benjamin, A. J., Wood, P. K., & Bonacci, A. M. (2006). Development and testing of the Velicer attitudes toward violence scale: Evidence for a four‐factor model. Aggressive Behavior, 32(2), 122-136.
Carnagey, N. L., & Anderson, C. A. (2007). Changes in attitudes towards war and violence after September 11, 2001. Aggressive Behavior, 33(2), 118-129.
Finke, R., & Harris, J. (2012). Wars and rumors of wars: Explaining religiously motivated violence. Religion, Politics, Society and The State, 53-71.
Jones, J. W. (2013). The psychology of contemporary religious violence: A multidimensional approach. APA Handbook of Psychology, Religion, and Spirituality (Vol 2): An Applied Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 2, 355–370. doi:10.1037/14046-018
Juergensmeyer, M. (2003). The religious roots of contemporary terrorism. The New Global Terrorism: Characteristics, Causes, Controls, 185-193.
Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., Norman, S. M., & Combs, G. M. (2006). Psychological capital development: toward a micro‐intervention. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(3), 387-393.
Miller, G. D. (2007). Confronting terrorisms: Group motivation and successful state policies. Terrorism and Political Violence, 19(3), 331-350.
Myers, E., Hewstone, M., & Cairns, E. (2009). Impact of conflict on mental health in Northern Ireland: The mediating role of intergroup forgiveness and collective guilt. Political Psychology, 30(2), 269-290.
O’Brien, W. (1985). Counterterrorism: Lessons from Israel. Strategic Review, 13(4), 32-44.
McCullough, M. E., Pargament, K. I., & Thoresen, C. E. (2000). The frontier of forgiveness. Forgiveness: Theory, Research and Practice, 299-319.
Rye, M. S., Loiacono, D. M., Folck, C. D., Olszewski, B. T., Heim, T. A., & Madia, B. P. (2001). Evaluation of the psychometric properties of two forgiveness scales. Current Psychology, 20(3), 260-277.
Staub, E., Pearlman, L. A., Gubin, A., & Hagengimana, A. (2005). Healing, reconciliation, forgiving and the prevention of violence after genocide or mass killing: An intervention and its experimental evaluation in Rwanda. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(3), 297.
Subkoviak, M. J., Enright, R. D., Wu, C., Gassin, E. A., Freedman, S., Olson, L. M., & Sarinopoulos, I. (1995). Measuring interpersonal forgiveness in late adolescence and middle adulthood. Journal of Adolescence, 18, 641–655
Velicer, W. F., Huckel, L. H., & Hansen, C. E. (1989). A measurement model for measuring attitudes toward violence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15(3), 349-364.

Thursday, December 08, 2016

Positive and Negative Religious Experience

"Sesungguhnya Kami mengetahui bahawa apa yang mereka katakan itu akan menyebabkan engkau (wahai Muhammad) berdukacita; (maka janganlah engkau berdukacita) kerana sebenarnya mereka bukan mendustakanmu, tetapi orang-orang yang zalim itu mengingkari ayat-ayat keterangan Allah (disebabkan kedegilan mereka semata-mata)." (6:33)
Penglibatan dalam aktiviti keagamaan (e.g. berdakwah) boleh mendatangkan ransangan yg negatif. Mengikut Krause (2013), kesan ini boleh dikelaskan sebagai "the dark side of religion". Bukan maksudnya agama itu negatif; tapi pengamal agama itu mungkin terdedah kepada kecederaan fizikal dan psikologikal disebabkan pengamalan agama itu.
Keindahan yg saya nampak dalam ayat di atas, selain mengakui kesan negatif yg mungkin timbul, Allah swt juga mengajar positive reframing supaya "dark side" itu tidak menghasilkan natijah buruk kepada kesihatan.

Thor puns

Q: What venue would Odin's son prefer to have his concert?
A: An audiThorium
Q: Why did the prince of Asgard read a medicine textbook?
A; Because he wants to be a docThor.
Q; Why did the hammer-wielding superhero feel disgusted and angry when eating at a Malay restaurant?
A: Because he saw people having Thorpedo soup.
Q: What is the strongest equipment that math students have?
A; CalculaThor
Q; Why wasn't Thor's younger brother involved in any of the questions above?
A: Because he likes to keep it low-key.

PAU berasap

Ada tak ahli atau pemimpin UMNO yg mampu perjuangkan hak rakyat utk dilindungi daripada asap rokok di tempat awam (cth: kedai makan)?
Undang2 dah ada. Perlu dipinda ke?
Saya rasa rokok ni satu faktor penyatuan dalam kalangan org berbaju merah, kuning, biru, oren dll. Bab politik memang gaduh kaw kaw. Bab kongsi rokok dan asap rokok, jadi sekutu baik. Boleh derma rokok. Pinjamkan lighter. Sedut sama2.
Rokok Asas Penyatuan.

باءيق باءيق منيتيق بدق
بدق كريڠ دلاري كومبڠ
برڤد ڤد منابور ددق
ددق هابيس ايم تربڠ

Tersurat vs tersirat

Budak budak yg belum bersekolah sebenarnya dah pandai guna ayat tersirat. Bila dinyatakan bahawa "orang dewasa saja boleh makan chewing gum", ada budak2 yg boleh membuat respon
"Ooo.. kanak2 tak boleh makan ya?"
Yg jadi masalah ialah bila mereka diajar ada satu saja ayat tersirat yg diterima sebagai betul. Mungkin aktiviti pengajaran dan penilaian di sekolah boleh menggalakkan penerokaan apa yg tersirat dalam pemikiran mereka.

Berdasarkan pemerhatian tidak saintifik, kanak2 memang ada kemampuan mentafsir yg tersirat daripada yg tersurat. Soalan2 yg boleh ditanya berkenaan isu ini ialah
1. Apa matlamat pembelajaran tersebut?
2. Sesuaikan matlamat berkenaan disangkut kepada mu
rid darjah 1?
3. Adakah sebenarnya yabg diajar: membezakan tersurat dan tersirat? Kaedah 'penyiratan'? Menghafal contoh2 ayat tersirat? Kemahiran menggunakan teks sebagai data utk menyirat? Kemahiran menggunakan maklumat daripada pengalaman hidup utk menyirat?

Pantun 4 Kaki

Lembu jinak parasnya sihat
rajin meragut merata padang
terlalu banyak masa berehat
badan lembut orang tak pandang
Kuda meringkik berlatar teja
nampak perkasa bukan melidi
peluh menitik ibarat baja
bercambah jasa berbunga budi
Biri-biri bermain seludang
jelas benar nakal comelnya
jaga teliti si anak medang
bila besar luas teduhnya
Sapi di hutan kencang berlari
kuat tenaga bukannya baran
hidup bukan makan sendiri
pedulilah juga kenyang jiran