Wednesday, December 27, 2017

Mental Rotation Task




23 female and 13 male psychology undergraduate students (mean age = 20.61, SD= .80) took an online mental rotation task (opl.apa.org). Response times for the different condition are longer compared to for similar condition except at angle rotation of 225 degrees. The response times have a general upward trend as a function of the rotational angle, peaking at 180, and moving downwards after that.


Blogger Widgets

Saturday, December 02, 2017

Mencari Pengganti Kertas

Harris Abd Hamid. (2000). Mencari pengganti kertas. Buletin Psikologi, 5, 57-59.

Setelah 17 tahun, terasa banyak bahagian artikel ini sudah ketinggalan zaman. Siapa pernah dengar Palm Pilot? Namun, kita masih lagi kecanduan kertas.

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Ambil serumpun keladi bunting. Potong dan bersihkan tangkainya. Rebus di dalam larutan alkohol. Kiras dan campurkan sedikit asid hidroklorik. Ratakan adunan senipis yang boleh dan keringkan. Hasilnya? Bahan yang boleh diguna sebagai medium maklumat. Atau nama pendeknya: kertas.

Apa yang anda baca sekarang ini besar kemungkinan tidak dicetak di atas kertas keladi bunting. kertas yang dihasilkan secara komersil biasanya menggunakan pulpa pokok. kertas pelbagai kualiti, saiz, dan warnan yang senang didapati sekarang memainkan peranan penting dalam menyampaikan maklumat. Bil telefon, nota, kad pengenalan dan slip keputusan peperiksaan hanyalah sebahaian daripada penggunaan kertas sebagai dokumen. dengan pantasnya pergerakan teknologi digial, pergantungan terhadap kertas telah dinilai semula. Mungkinkah ada pengganti kertas?

Dengan mengingkatnya penggunaan komputer dan alat elektronik yang mengambil sebahagian fungsi kertas, ada pihak yang membayangkan penggunaan kertas boleh dikurangkan atau dihapuskan sama sekali. penggunaan alat pmebangtu digital peribadi (personal digital assitant atau PDA) misalnya telah menunjukkan potensi menggantikan diari, buku alamat, dan perancang tahunan. 3Com Palm Pilot misalnya semakin diterima kerana ia berupaya mengecam tulisan tangan. Nokia Communicator 9110 pula menggabungkan daya tarikan telefon bimbit dengan kemudahan alat PDA. Sekarang sudah ada jalan untuk orang awam mengurangkan penggunaan kertas.

Untuk masa depan, 'Pejabat Bebas Kertas' telah menjadi matlamat baru sistem pengurusan. Projek Koridor Raya Multimedia secara eksplisit meletakkan bebas kertas sebagai satu aplikasi perdana untuk pentadbiran negara. Gerakan seperti ini pasti mendapat sokongan pencinta alam yang berusaha mengurangkan jumlah pokok yang terpaksa ditebang untuk industri kertas. Tapi, sudah pastilah industri kertas terancam sekiranya permintaan terhadap kertas berkurangan. Pengeluar yang bergantung kepada permintaan terhadap kertas - seperti pengeluar mesin pencetak dan mesin fotostat - juga akan terasa kesan negatifnya. Pengeluar yang melihat jauh ke hadapan telah mula memikitkan strategi untuk mengekalkan operasi mereka.

Syarikat Xerox yang terkenal dengan mesin fotostatnya tidka mahu ketinggalan dalam dunia yang akan meninggalkan kertas sebagai bahan sejarah. Walaupun sebahagian penyelidik di Xerox percaya bebas kertas hanyalah ilusi, mereka telah membangunkan beberapa sistem yang berkemungkinan meletakkan mereka di hadapa sekiranya ilusi menjadi realiti.

Xerox Research Centre Europe di Cambridge sedang menjalankan beberapa kajian untuk memahami interaksi manusia dan kertas. menggunakan kaedah etnografi, mereka mengkaji penggunaan kertas di pejabat. mereka mendapati kertas membolehkan pengguna melakukan empat perkara: mencatat (annotate), membanding dokumen, mengongsi dan menyilang rujuk (cross-referencing). Dalam kata lain, kertas menyokong manusia melakukan tuags-tugas tersebut. Empat tugas ini lebih mudah dilakukan dengan kertas berbanding dengan dokumen digital. Bayangkanlah bagaimana seorang pensyarah hendak menyemak esei pelajar mengguna komputer dan MS Word. Di mana hendak mencatat komen dan pembetulan? Adakah esei yang telah disemak kelihatan seperti telah disemak? Dengan kertas, tugas ini sangat mudah dilaksanakan. Pensyarah boleh menulis komen dengan mudah di mana-mana. Dakwat pen yang mudah dilihat sekali imbas boleh menjadi tanda yang jelas bahawa sesuatu esu telah disemak.

Empat sokongan tugas yang dikenalpasi dari kajian etnografi itu bolehlah dikelaskan sebagai sokongan praktikal. Sokongan praktikal yang lain termasuklah mudah diguna dan mudah dibaca. Tidak perlu kuasa elektrik, tidak perlu menunggu lama untuk dilihat, tidak perlu perisian yang mahal, dan tulisan biasanya jelas dan terang.

Selain menyokong tugasan dari segi praktik, kertas turut menyokong peluahan emosi. Mungkin ada yang suar melihat kaitan kertas dan emosi. Cuba fikir kembali bilakah kali terakhir anda 'terhibur' mendengar bunyi kertas dicarik. Atau mencium surat yang berbau harum sambil mengursap permukaannya yang halus. Atau menconteng dan mengoyang (hatta membakar) surat-surat insan yang telah melukakan hati anda. Bayangkan pula penulis yang menconteng, mengkerunyuk, dan mencampakkan bebola kertas hingga bertimbun-timbun. dapatkan tingkah laku seperti ini disokong oleh teknologi dokumen digital? Bunyi senang ditiru, tapi akan samakah kesannya? Di mana romantiknya surat cinta yang tidak dapat disentuh dan tidak berbau? Bolehkan alat dokumen digital dicapakkan ke bakul sampah jika dokumen yang diterima menyakitkan hati? Bagaimana hendak menolak dokumen digital yang tidak mahu diterima?

Jika anda peminat filem cinta, pasti anda dapat menghargai kepentingan meulahkan emosi mengguna kertas. Dalam sesebuah filem cinta, mungkin seorang bapa tidak merestui jalinan cinta si anak. Dalam salah satu adegan klise, hero ditawarkan cek kosong oleh bapa heroin supaya melupakan anak perempuannya. Untuk membuktikan cintanya tidak boleh dijual beli, si hero mengambil cek, mengoyaknya perlahan-lahan lalu mencampakkan cebisan cek dengan riak muka yang marah (sambil diiringi muzik yang menambah dramatiknya suasana). Begitulah pentingnya kertas, sama ada disedari atau tidak, dalam kehidupan manusia. Jika ingin melangkah ke alam bebas kertas, sudah adakah penggantinya?

Dalam membincangkan kertas dan emosi, memang banyak persoalan yang perlu dijawab. Di sini wijud peluang bagi ahli psikologi, khususnya ahli ergonomik (atau psikologi faktor manusia), untuk mengkaji interaksi antara manusia dengan dokumen dalam bentuk kertas dan digital. Penyelesaian perlu dicari untuk memungkinkan peluahan emosi apabila mengguna pengganti kertas. Jia ia tidak semesra kertas, maka alam bebas kertas akan terus menghuni ruang ilusi.

Artikel ini tercetus daripada mini seminar di Universit College London pada 8.2.2000 yang disampaikan oleh Jon O'Brien, William Newman dan Marge Eldrige dari Xerox Research Centre Europe, Cambride, United Kongdom. Maklumat lanjut tentang XRCE boleh didapati di www.xrce.xerox.com/xrce.html.

Thursday, September 28, 2017

Is psychology haram?

"Do you think study psychology at university is haram and it goes against Islam?"
Above is a question that I found when Googling something recently.

In my own experience, when I was doing my bachelor degree, I was asked by a Malaysian who whom I met in Canada about my chosen field of study. When I told him it is psychology, his reaction was as if he'd answer "YES" to the question above. He asked me to reconsider my decision and study something else. I just took note and told myself to learn more about psychology to convince myself that my decision is right.

After joining IIUM as a lecturer in 2004, I learned a lot more about psychology and Islam. Alhamdulillah, I can see much more examples of how psychology can help me to be a better Muslim. What I've learned at Guelph University formally, and my (mostly) informal learning at IIUM has made me love Islam and psychology more. For example, I've learned the difference between what psychologists do in terms of stating the fact (descriptive) and giving an advice (prescriptive). Psychology isn't 'haram' for describing negative human behaviours. What could be 'haram' is the promotion of behaviour and thoughts
that are contradictory to the syariat.

For example, social pressure in the form of conformity is described and explained well by social psychologists. People behave the way they are partly because they feel pressured to follow the norm. In Guelph, as a teenage Muslim from Malaysia, I feel out of place. I was aware of the pressure of the Canadian norms - some are excellent and good to follow, some are against the syariat. If I choose to bow to the social pressure, I'd be another case of conformist. Having the Islamic belief system, I chose otherwise. Islam has prescriptions of behaviours. And those prescriptions are good for me; not necessarily put me in a hostile confrontation with the host society.

I remember one female student, with whom I worked on a group project. At the end of the semester, she complimented they way I show adherence to my religious principles. And she respected my beliefs. I felt validated for making the distinction between prescription and description. And now, looking back at that incident, I saw how psychology made my friend a better person.

I hope students of psychology programmes would be able to move from the question on the halal/haram of psychology to something like "How can I use psychology to promote good behavior and discourage bad behavior?"


Tuesday, September 05, 2017

Saturday, August 19, 2017

Calling Malaysian psychologists

Call for Book Chapters:

Psychology for National Development

Do you feel that psychology is not being recognised enough in Malaysia? Do you still face people who mistook psychology for something else? And do you feel you want to do something about the social ills around us, but the Government agencies are not receptive to genuine psychological interventions?

If you answered yes to any of the questions above, then we are in the same boat. We at Persatuan Psikologi Malaysia (PSIMA) have had a lot of discussion on this matter. Through the Bureau of National Development and Publication Bureau, PSIMA is now embarking upon a book project. The main goal of the book is to show to the public, and especially the relevant Government agencies, that psychology can help in moving forward national development agenda. This goal was chosen because there is misunderstanding and low level of awareness about the role that psychology can play.  A clear communication about how psychology can help with many problems related to national development is important to raise the professionalism of psychologists.

I cordially invite you to join this project as author of chapter(s). The suggested topics are as follow. You’re welcome to suggest other interesting and suitable topics.

Uniting our Nation
Managing Disasters
Developing our Workforce
Reducing Crime
Cyber Wellness
Improving our Health
Revitalizing our Schools
Caring for our Elderly
Helping our Youth
Eradicating Poverty
Improving Mental Health
Integrity and Professionalism

The chapter’s template is as shown below. The expected word count is between 3,000 to 5,000 words. These guides are not meant as strict requirements. You may invite your colleagues, friends, or students to write a chapter. If there are 5 of you, one author has to write only 1 section!

Start your chapter now by emailing me (Harris Shah Abd Hamid) at harris75@gmail.com

Tell me your chosen chapter title and co-authors (if applicable) by 30th August  2017.

===========================

[Chapter’s Title]
[author1, author2, author3 … ]

[Statement of Problem]

This section describes the problem that needs to be solved. The following guiding questions can be used for this section.
- What is the problem?
- Who are affected?
- Where is the problem most serious?
- What are the consequences of the problem?
- When does the problem occur?

     2.   [National Trends/Concerns/Context]

This section highlights macro-level trends (economic, demographic, technological, etc) that shape the problems. These trends are used to predict the severity of the problems if not managed well. They also set the context to understand the problems and link them to other chapters in the book.

   3.   [Existing Evidence]

This section provides an overview of the existing literature on the problems. It may highlight findings in terms of good practices, potential interventions, or gap in understanding the problems.

    4. [Psychology Matters]

In this section, the author can show the role of psychology and psychologists in solving the problems.

    5.   [Call for Action]
In this concluding section, the author proposes scientific-based intervention(s) to manage or solve the problems.

References

=============

Notes:

1. Please use APA style.
2. Please use UK English.
3. Timeline for authors will be made available after 30 August 2017.
4. The book editors are Harris Shah Abd Hamid & Rozainee Khairuddin
5. The book will be published by PSIMA. There is a possibility of collaboration with a co-publisher.
6. The faster we get all chapters, the faster the book would be published. How does the end of the year sounds?
7. Yes, undergraduates may write too. In fact, this would be a nice coursework: you earn both course credit and publication record.

Tuesday, July 25, 2017

research colloquium

Alhamdulillah. On 3rd July, 5 abstracts that I've co-written were accepted for presentation at the International Postgraduate Research Colloquium.
1. Idealized Celebrity Images, Body Appreciation and Intention to buy Body Slimming Products
2. Predictors of Body Satisfaction among Malay Men
3. Psychometric Properties and Number of Likert Scales’ Response Categories
4. Evaluation of Methods for Handling Bedridden Patients during Emergency Evacuation
5. Two ways to reveal the factor structure of Statistics Anxiety Scale (SAS): Malaysian Undergraduate Students Sample
Thank you to colleagues and students who've contributed greatly to these abstracts. InsyaAllah, I will be personally presenting papers 1 and 2.

PhD Palsu

Ada orang pandai masak rendang, maka dipanggil sifu rendang. Tapi tidaklah pula dia letakkan gelaran 'Sifu' dalam dokumen rasmi dan cetak sijil sendiri.
Ada orang memang pandai bab mengahwinkan pokok-pokok, maka orang menggelarnya Profesor. Tapi tidaklah pula dia meletakkan gelaran Profesor itu pada kad namanya. Gelaran Profesor tu hanya diguna dalam perbualan santai.
Tapi ada orang terlalu mengambil serius gelaran Profesor yang dilemparkan kepadanya, sehingga dia menipu dirinya sendiri bahawa dia betul-betul seorang Profesor. Dan dia menipu orang lain dengan mengakui dirinya Profesor.

Internet troll

Trolling has been described as an antisocial behavior, which is part of counterproductive online behavior.
One study published in 2014 concluded that ".. cyber-trolling appears to be an Internet manifestation of everyday sadism." 
Ask ourself what are the main drivers of our online behavior? Do we show our sadistic tendency when we interact with other people on social media? Do we write posts on FB and WA group based on the principles of truth and sabar?

Elok kita ingatkan diri dengan surah al-asr bila hendak menulis di media sosial dengan niat berdakwah.
Kalau tidak sabar, dan tidak pula dengan maklumat yang sahih, kemungkinan kita akan berada dalan kerugian.
Rugi masa
Rugi kredibiliti
Rugi emosi
Rugi kesihatan piskologikal

Asyik asyik neuro

Satu lagi produk dengan label 'neuro'. Kononnya ia boleh merangsang saraf otak dengan kuasa elektrik yang dialirkan melalui kulit kepala (transcranial direct current stimulation - tCDS). Kesannya? Ahli sukan boleh bersukan dengan lebih cemerlang.
Di Malaysia ni, dah ada perniagaan alat elektronik untuk 'menyembuhkan' penyakit. Alat berkenaan menggunakan elektrod yang dilekatkan di kepala (atau kepit di topi). Seperti yang didedahkan Pseudoscience Watch, 'terapi' ini palsu. Tak berkesan. Tak ada bukti ia berkesan. Yang pasti ia berkesan mengurangkan duit pesakit.
Halo Neuroscience memasarkan Halo Sport untuk ahli sukan. Bukan pesakit. Agak menarik bila membaca perkataan 'medicine' dalam tajuk berita di The Star. 

Sebelum kita berlumba-lumba membeli alat ini (ada dijual di 11street.com.my - harganya RM4,928.81), ataupun sebelum syarikat dengan model perniagaan MLM mula memasarkannya di Malaysia, carilah dahulu bukti keberkesanannya.
"In fact, a meta-analysis of tDCS studies – one of those laborious studies that study the findings of other studies – found the technique had no effect at all on a wide range of cognitive abilities."
Sayangilah otak anda.

beverages jokes

1.
A man, with a bad cough, walked into Starbucks and placed his order. Upon receiving his receipt, he was surprised at the extra charges for his usual cappuccino.
"What's this for?" he asked the barista in between his coughs.
The barista handed him an extra paper napkin and replied, "That's the coffee."

2.
A woman walked into Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf and ordered a hot chai. When collecting her order, she was given the chai, and a liquid in a very small container.
"I only ordered the chai," she hesitated in accepting the extra drink.
"This comes with your chai," the staff told her.
"But why is it so small?"
"It is exactly 6% of your chai. It's the GST".